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Vol 10, No 2 (2013)


Prevalence of allergic rhinitis in Russia and all over the world

Lopatin A.S., Chuchueva N.D.


Allergic rhinitis (AR) is the most common chronic respiratory disorder among adults and children world-wide. Although symptoms of AR are not life threatening, they are nevertheless frequently bothersome and adversely affect work and quality of life. Moreover, AR is often associated with co-morbid conditions such as otitis media and effusion, recurrent and chronic sinusitis, asthma. Mental consequences of AR are associated with sleep, poor school performance, and hyperactivity, which result in increased disturbances with learning, performance, behavior and mood. Epidemiological studies have indicated that the prevalence of allergic disorders including AR have increased progressively over the last three decades and presently affects up to 40% of the population world-wide. The prevalence is wider in the high-income «westernized» societies because of its well documented data, there is comparatively little information for the developing low to middle income countries. The data on the AR prevalence based on the number of visits for medical aid underestimate the real prevalence of the disease. More exact information can be gained from population studies. Numerous epidemiological researches aimed on investigation of the AR prevalence among children and adults showed wide variation of the obtained data. Anyway it allows for suggestion that the prevalence of allergic diseases and AR particularly is higher in the developed high-income countries and in families with better social status.
Russian Journal of Allergy. 2013;10(2):3-11
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Expired air nitric oxide in patients with bronchial asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with different disease course

Fedoseev G.B., Trofimov V.I., Timchik V.G., Negrutsa K.V., Razumovskaya T.S., Rogachova N.N., Alexandrin V.A., Kriakunov K.N.


Expired air nitric oxide was measured in 113 subjects (26 healthy controls, 64 bronchial asthma (BA) patients and 23 COPD patients. In BA patients 10 had mild course of the disease. In 50 the course was estimated as moderate, 4 patients had severe course of the disease. In 20 patients BA was associated with COPD. The results revealed the dependence of FeNO on following factors: severity of the disease: in severe and moderate BA course FeNO was significantly higher than in mild BA; on phase of the disease: in exacerbation FeNO was significantly higher than in remission; on control of the disease: in patients, in whom it was difficult to reach the disease control, FeNO was higher than in others. In COPD patients FeNO was significantly lower than in BA ones. Even in subjects with marked airways inflammation manifested by high sputum cellularity FeNO was low.
Russian Journal of Allergy. 2013;10(2):12-18
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Seasonal allergic rhinitis in the Komi Republic

Vahnina O.A., Fassahov R.S.


Background. Seasonal allergic rhinitis (SAR) presents a great problem of public health all over the world, being widespread among allergic diseases. SAR considerably impacts on social and economic aspects of life. The prevalence rate of SAR and it’s etiology need to be studied to develop the preventive measures and qualified medical attendance. There is limited knowledge concerning the prevalence rate of SAR in Russian Federation. This article presents the results of epidemiological study of pollen allergy, including SAR, in Komi Republic (KR) among adolescents and adults. We found out that SAR is the most widespread pollen allergy, and it’s prevalence rate is 12%. The most frequent etiological factors of SAR are tree pollen and cereals, but the polyvalent sensitization to all kinds of pollen is the most prevalent. The results of studying of epidermal and domestic allergens etiology role are also presented. Objective. To evaluate the prevalence rate and main etiological factors of SAR in KR. Methods. The epidemiological study was carried out in KR within the framework of international program GA2LEN. During questioning we included 2002 respondents, 1038 of them with mentioned allergy reactions in questionnaire underwent allergological examination, including skin scratch tests (men 49,3% and women 50,7%; rural dwellers 18,5% and city dwellers 81,5%). Results. Of the 1038 patients surveyed, 253 were diagnosed with SAR, with a total prevalence rate of 12,6%. There was no significant difference in sex between rural and city dwellers. In 50% of cases allergic conjunctivitis accompanies SAR. The most prevalent sensitization was to tree pollen and cereals. In 44% of SAR we estimated polyvalent sensitization to tree pollen, weeds and cereals. About 50% of patients with SAR were also diagnosed with perennial allergic rhinitis and 20% of them had sensitization to epidermal and domestic allergens. Conclusion. We evaluated the prevalence rate of SAR in KR, that is considerably higher than official data. The most prevalent etiological factors of SAR were also revealed.
Russian Journal of Allergy. 2013;10(2):19-22
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Polymorphism of the cytokine genes (H4, ИМ) and peculiarities of immune response depending on the control over atopic bronchial asthma in children

Smolnikova M.V., Smirnova S.V., Tyutina O.S., Bychkovskaya S.V.


Background. The aim of this study was to investigate the main indices of humoral and cellular immunity, the levels of cytokines (IL-2, IL-4, IL-10, TNFa) and polymorphism of promoter regions of cytokine genes (IL4 and IL10) in children with atopic bronchial asthma (ABA) with different levels of disease control. Methods. We have analyzed 110 children with ABA - controlled (CABA, n=59) and uncontrolled (UABA, n=51) and healthy children (control group, n=52). Parameters of cellular immunity were determined by fluorescence microscopy using monoclonal antibodies to surface receptors. Parameters of humoral immunity and cytokine levels in the samples of serum were measured by ELISA. Genotyping of single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the IL4 (С-590Т) and IL10 (С597А) genes was performed by PCR. Results. The level of TNFa and the relative amount of CD8+ cells was increased, while the counts of CD3+ cells and the relative amount of CD4+ cells was decreased in UABA as compared to CABA. In CABA, lower concentration of the IL-10 in serum associated with the IL10 A-597 allele was observed. The IL4 T-590 allele tends to be associated with non-controlled ABA. Conclusion. The level of TNFa, and the CD3+, CD4+ and CD8+ cell counts were identified as markers of uncontrolled course of ABA in children. Polymorphic variants of IL4 and IL10 genes can be considered as candidate markers of uncontrolled ABA.
Russian Journal of Allergy. 2013;10(2):23-28
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Endothelial dysfunction in patients with bronchial asthma

Sobko E.A., Kraposhina A.Y., Ryazanova N.G., Ischenko O.P., Demko I.V., Salmina A.B., Eidemiller N.S., Gerzheg G.E.


Background. To estimate interrelation of clinical and functional parameters and vessel tome regulating function of endothelium in patients with bronchial asthma. Methods. 126 patients with bronchial asthma have been examined, including 29 patients with mild bronchial asthma (the first group), 32 persons with moderate bronchial asthma (the second group), 40 respondents with severe asthma (the third group) and 25 patients with steroiddependent asthma (fourth group). The control group included 27 healthy volunteers. We have assessed the parameters of external respiration, vasodilatation function, and the levels of TNFa, IL4, sCD31 in the plasma. Results. The results of the research of vessel tome regulating function in patients with bronchial asthma are presented. The existence of endothelial function of an endothelium are characterized by disturbance of vasomotor activity of endothelium, rising of sCD31 and levels of cytokines (Il-4, TNFa) in plasma was revealed. These changes deteriorate within the ages and the course of bronchial asthma. Conclusion. We have demonstrated that endothelial dysfunction is developed even at the early stages of bronchial asthma.
Russian Journal of Allergy. 2013;10(2):29-36
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Preexposure prophylaxis of infants’ food allergy

Denisova S.N., Belitskaya M.Y., Sentsova T.B., Revyakina V.A., Kirillova O.O., Vorozhko I.V.


Background. Till the present time the problem of food allergy remains to be the topical subject and demands further development of therapeutical and prevention programs, including diet therapy for nursing mothers. The work is aimed at clinical and immunological evaluating of diet therapy of mothers whose children have atopic dermatitis on the back of breast feeding only. Methods. There were 100 «mother and child» couples kept under observance, that were divided into two groups. All the children had atopic dermatitis (AD), associated to cow milk protein allergy. Nursing mothers from both the groups were treated by diet therapy according to which the cow milk in diet have been replaced either with goat milk of New Zealand origin (first group had 43 «mother and child» couples) or with nondairy products (second group had 57 «mother and child» couples). Effectiveness of diet therapy of nursing mothers has been evaluated by the dynamic of clinical and immunological symptoms of atopic dermatitis in 1-3 months from treatment beginning. Immunological effectiveness of the treatment has been evaluated by the dynamic of indexes of specific IgE and IgG antibodies to cow milk protein, β-lactoglobulin, casein, soy protein and goat milk protein and cytokines levels. Results. In the course of treatment, that included diet therapy of nursing mothers and antiallergic cure of infants, both the groups showed remission and saved breast feeding. Immunological evaluating of therapeutic intervention’s effectiveness revealed the improvement of total IgE, allergenspecific IgE and IgG antibodies to cow milk protein and its fractions, as well as to soy and goat milk protein in blood of all the children on the back of breast feeding. Moreover, complex therapy conduced decreasing of pro-inflammatory cytokines concentration in blood. Conclusion. These findings prove reasonability of dietary treatement for nursing mothers, whose children have atopic dermatitis, associated associated to cow milk protein allergy.
Russian Journal of Allergy. 2013;10(2):37-42
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Antihistamines in seasonal allergic rhinitis from a position of evidential medicine

Karaulov A.V.


The article considers I and II generation of antihistamines (AGs), which are used today in medical practice. The advantages of nonsedative II generation of AGs, especially socalled active metabolites (fexofenadine, cetirizine, levocetirizine, desloratadine) are emphasized. Currently, AGs, such as fexofenadine is deservedly regarded. This is one of the most effective H1AG for therapeutic practice that combines high efficacy and safety. This is the first choice treatment for allergic rhinitis patients.
Russian Journal of Allergy. 2013;10(2):43-49
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Toll-like receptors in human skin

Ionescu M.A.


Uriage patented complex TlR2-Regul® modulates the activity of toll-like receptors, which are the part of innate immune system. TlR2-Regul ®-containing emulsions used as monotherapy in patients with light seborrheic dermatitis, acne and atopic dermatitis significantly reduces the signs of skin inflammation.
Russian Journal of Allergy. 2013;10(2):50-55
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Chinuclidines in the treatment of allergodermatoses

Danilycheva I.V., Shulszenko A.E.


Justification of H 1-antihistamines for the treatment of itching dermatoses mentioned in the article. Positive and negative characteristics of H 1-firstgeneration drugs and general characteristic of sequifenadine are shown in the article. Major clinical studies on the safety and efficacy in patients with allergodermatoses treated with sequifenadine are described.
Russian Journal of Allergy. 2013;10(2):56-60
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The relationship between sensitization to allergens of cow’s and goat’s milk at children with atopic dermatitis

Varlamov E.E., Okuneva T.S., Pampura A.N.


Introduction. The main principle of treatment of cow’s milk allergy (CMA) is the elimination from the diet of cow’s milk. However recently has been discussing the possibility to substitute the cow’s milk with goat’s milk in children with allergy to cow s milk protein. Background. To determine the relationship between sensitization to cow’s milk specific allergens in goat’s milk sensitized children. Methods. The study included 88 children with suspected allergy to CMA. All patients underwent determination of specific IgE to allergen of cow’s and goat’s milk allergen (ImmunoCAP 100 Phadia AB). We identified 35 children with sensitization to cow’s milk and measured specific IgE to α-laktalbumin, β-lactoglobulin and casein. Results. Sensitization to goat’s milk was estimated in 83% of patients with sensitization to cow’s milk. There was a significant positive correlation between the concentration of specific IgE to goat’s milk allergen and specific IgE to the cow’s milk allergen (R=0,91, p=0,0000001), a-laktalbumin (R=0,76, p=0,000007), β-lactoglobulin (R=0,72, p=0,000038) and casein (R=0,91, p=0,0000001). Conclusion. Formulas based on goat milk can not be considered hypoallergenic for children allergic to cow’s milk. Crosssensitization is mediated mainly with sensitization to casein. Introduction of goat milk and its derivatives in the diet of a child with an allergy to cow’s milk can be proven only by the absence of clinically relevant sensitization to goat milk.
Russian Journal of Allergy. 2013;10(2):61-65
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Sertaconazole in treatment of atopic dermatitis patients

Elisyutina O.G., Fedenko E.S., Shtirbul O.V.


The role of Malassezia and Candida infection in pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis, as well as the results of Sertaconazole cream efficiency in atopic dermatitis are given in the article.
Russian Journal of Allergy. 2013;10(2):66-73
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Congresses, Conferences

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Russian Journal of Allergy. 2013;10(2):74-74
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Instructions for Authors

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Russian Journal of Allergy. 2013;10(2):75-77
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