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Vol 10, No 4 (2013)

Articles
Eosinophils and allergy
Chernyak B.A., Vorzheva I.I.
Abstract
The results of the modern scientific researches regarding a new view on a role of eosinophils in allergy as multifunctional cells are colligated in the review. First of all, it concerns participation of eosinophils in regulation of Th2type of the immune response, in formation of allergic inflammation and tissue damage. Their role in outcome of these processes - reparation or chronization of illness, including mechanisms of tissue remodeling is also very important.
Russian Journal of Allergy. 2013;10(4):3-12
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Bioaffection of the internal environment of dwellings with potentially allergenic microscopic fungi as a risk factor for health
Bogomolova E.V., Ukhanova O.P.
Abstract
Background. The evaluation of the species composition and numbers of spores of microscopic fungi in the air environment of St. Petersburg apartments and comparison of these indicators with the air of the external environment of the city Materials and methods. The research had been carried out in 2009-2012, in Saint-Petersburg. The air samples were taken with the automatic sampler Burkard on Petri dishes with agarised environment Capek’s with the addition of chloramphenicol for the suppression of bacteriobiota. The samples were taken in residential apartments having the signs of mold fungi intrusion, as well as without them, during all the seasons of the year. We have studied the results of the air analyses of 550 apartments. Results. Analysis of specific and generic composition of mold fungi in the air environment of infected apartments showed the domination of fungi of the genera Penicillium (the occurrence of 100%), Cladosporium (70%), Aspergillus (65%) in occurrence and abundance. And also the fungi of the genera Mucor (40%) and Stachybotrys (40%), Chaetomium (35%), Paecilomyces (20%), Ulocladium (20%), Aureobasidium (15%) were found in residential premises. The analysis of the abundance of dominant genera of micromycetes in the air of the clean apartments showed that fungi of the genera Penicillium (the occurrence of 100%) are dominated by occurrence, the representatives of other branches appeared randomly, but usually belonged to the genera Acremonium, Alternaria, Aureobasidium, Cladosporium, Fusarium, Paecilomyces, Ulocladium. Conclusion. The impact of high concentration of the spores of dominant micromycetes is directly associated with the exacerbation of allergic diseases of the respiratory tract - bronchial asthma, bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, allergic rhinitis in springsummer period of the year. The study of the propagules dynamics of potentially allergenic microscopic fungi in aerobiota of Saint Petersburg can be useful for clinical diagnosis and prevention of allergic diseases in immunocompromised or sensitized patients.
Russian Journal of Allergy. 2013;10(4):13-17
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First results of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine treatment in patients with chronic bronchopulmonary diseases: evaluation safety and tolerability
Protasov A.D., Zhestkov A.V., Kostinov M.P.
Abstract
The data on the safety and tolerability of vaccination with the 13valent conjugated vaccine against pneumococcal infection of patients with chronic bronchopulmonary diseases is cited. Background. To evaluate the safety and tolerability of 13valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in patients with chronic bronchopulmonary disorders (COPD and asthma). Methods. The study involved 67 patients with chronic bronchopulmonary diseases, 33 of them had COPD (group I), and 34 had asthma (group II). Patients received 1 dose of vaccine, «Prevenar13» intramuscularly in the left shoulder. Within 7 days after vaccination all subjects filled out specially designed questionnaire, reflecting the local and general adverse events. Results. Vaccination with 13valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine of patients with COPD or asthma was well tolerated, no serious adverse events within 7 days of postvaccination period were observed.
Russian Journal of Allergy. 2013;10(4):18-23
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Mouse thymic mast cells in normal state and after stress-induced atrophy
Guselnicova V.V., Polevschikov A.V.
Abstract
Background. Studying of thymic mast cells population in normal state and after stressinduced atrophy. Methods. The study was performed on 80 thymus of white outbred mice with using of histochemistry and immunohistochemistry methods. Sections of embryonic thymus were stained with toluidine blue. Adult mice were given a single injection of 2,5 mg of hydrocortisone for induction of thymic accidental transformation; sections were stained with toluidine blue and alcian blue-safranin. Within of immunohistochemical research paraffin sections of adult thymus were stained with polyclonal antibodies to synaptophysin and tyrosine hydroxylase with alcian blue stain. Results. Mast cells (MCs) appeared in thymus on 19th day of embryonic life and demonstrated mainly a medullar location. In adult animals MCs were observed only in the connective tissue of the capsule, interlobular septa, subcortex and perivascular space. Mast cells matured in thymus after accidental transformation. The localization of developing mast cells was changing from medullar and cortical to capsular. A morphological proximity between nerve terminals and mast cells has been observed in normal adult thymus. Some of these nerves were catecholaminergic. Conclusion. Possible important role of thymic mast cells and mast cellsnerves interaction in normal state and after accidental transformation is discussed.
Russian Journal of Allergy. 2013;10(4):24-32
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Food anaphylaxis in children: epidemiology and triggers
Esakova N.V., Pampura A.N.
Abstract
Food anaphylaxis prevalence is increased over the last ten years in all age groups in developed countries. Authors compare the data on food anaphylaxis prevalence in children, point out a number of features influence the results of epidemiological researches and consider the most frequent triggers of food anaphylaxis.
Russian Journal of Allergy. 2013;10(4):33-38
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Atopic dermatitis prevalence in population of Moscow 1-year old children
Geneva M.S., Munblit D.B., Ermolaeva E.I., Pampura A.K.
Abstract
Background. Atopic dermatitis (AD) prevalence may be compared in cohorts evaluated with standardized questionnaires. The prevalence of AD in Russia with the UK Working Party’s Diagnostic Criteria for Atopic Dermatitis was not tested yet. Objective. To estimate AD prevalence in a population of Moscow 1-year old children with the UK Working Party’s Diagnostic Criteria for Atopic Dermatitis Methods. A population cohort of 393 children was recruited in Postnatal Department of Moscow No.1 Maternity Hospital in 2011. One year later 363 mothers (92,4%) were questioned with the UK Working Party’s Diagnostic Criteria for Atopic Dermatitis. Cheeks/body hyperemia and/or skin rash were also estimated in 365 families in connection with food intake by a child or by his mother during breastfeeding. Sensitization at the age of one was investigated in 130 children. Results. The UK Working Party’s Diagnostic Criteria for Atopic Dermatitis diagnosed AD in 2,2% children (8 of 363). One or more episode of cheeks/body hyperemia and/or skin rash during the first year of life was in 45,75%. 5,38% of children were sensitized. Conclusion. A few amount of one year old children Moscow population is diagnosed with AD according to the UK Working Party’s Diagnostic Criteria for Atopic Dermatitis, especially in compare to the number of children with skin reactions to the dietary intake.
Russian Journal of Allergy. 2013;10(4):39-43
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Allergen-specific skin prick tests in allergist practice
Gushchin I.S., Danilycheva I.V.
Abstract
Identification of patient’s allergen-specific hypersensitivity and its clinical value is a basis of the right choice allergen-specific treatment. The problem is solved by an allergist with the use of different diagnostic methods. The most important stage of diagnostics is an allergen-specific skin testing more widely used as a skin prick testing (SPT). The paper concerns SPT technique, indications and contraindications for the testing, interpretations of SPT results, performance at certain groups of patients, the most probable mistakes in carrying out SPT, the reasons of false positive and false negative results, a comparative assessment of SPT and other methods of allergen-specific diagnostics, requirements to allergenic extracts.
Russian Journal of Allergy. 2013;10(4):44-53
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Clinical and immunological features of infants born from mothers with threatened miscarriage
Kolesnikova S.M., Levkova H.A., Denisova S.N., Bogdanova S.V.
Abstract
Most of researchers denote predominance of morbid conditions, originated from prenatal period of life, in infant disease structure. To their mind, these points to the interrelation between these diseases and mother’s somatic health and het gestation course. The goal of the research was to study how the feto-maternal disease influences clinical and immunological status of infants at neonatal age. The observance has been held under 73 infants, born from mothers with different types of gestation. The first group contained infants, born from mothers with physiologic gestation course, the second group - infants, born from mothers with threatened miscarriage. The clinical laboratory examination of newborns and infants included evaluation of anthropometric characteristics, somatic status, ultrasound examination of thymus, indexes of cellular immunity. The examiners used diagnostic immunoenzymometric test-systems of JSC «Vektor-Best» and standardized methods. The newborns of the second group had the most apparent aberrations of physical growth and development. The central nervous system depression in the form of encephalitic depression syndrome has been detected as the common consequence of severe prenatal fetal hypoxia and neonatal asphyxia of second group newborns. Moreover, infants, born from mothers with threatened miscarriage, predominantly had «abnormal small thymus’s syndrome». The results of immunological examinations showed that infants’ cellular-immunity changes depended on nature of mother’s gestation disorders (suppressor type dependence). The developing of evident immune suppression with signs of immunological tolerance disorder has been detected amongst infants, born from mothers with threatened miscarriage. The initial symptoms were allergenic dermhelminthiasis.
Russian Journal of Allergy. 2013;10(4):54-59
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New fixed dose combination in treatment of asthma: focus on mometasone furoate/formoterol
Emelyanov A.V.
Abstract
The review focused on mometasone furoate/formoterol (MF/F), a new fixed dose combination (Zenhale, MDI 50/5, 100/5 and 200/5 mcg/dose) for treatment of asthma in adults and children 12 years of age and older. New combination should be used for patients not adequately controlled with inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) and «as needed» inhaled short acting β 2-agonist or those whose disease severity warrants initiation of treatment with two maintenance therapies. It may be also used in patients already adequately controlled on both ICS and long-acting β 2-agonist. Data from randomized placebo controlled clinical trials confirm that MF/F has fast onset of action, reduces number of exacerbations, improves lung function, quality of life and asthma control. MF/F has a good safety profile.
Russian Journal of Allergy. 2013;10(4):60-64
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Modern emollients impact on the damaged skin barrier at children with atopic dermatitis
Kindeeva E.T., Pampura A.N.
Abstract
Introduction. Damaged skin barrier has significant role in the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis (AD). Use of emollients is reasonable for skin care of AD patients. Background. To compare the clinical efficacy of Kserodian plus with traditional moisturizer (cream Unna) at children with atopic dermatitis. Materials and methods. The study included 31 children with AD. Children were divided into 2 groups: patients in group 1 (n=8) used Kserodian plus 2 times daily for skin lesions and limbs in the complex therapy, patients in the 2nd group (n=13) received combined therapy incorporating traditional dampening agent on the basis of lanolin (cream Unna) 3 times daily. All patients underwent measurement of transepidermal water loss (TEWL) (Tewameter TM 300, Multi Probe Adapter MPA 5/9, Courage + Khazaka) and the pH of the skin (SkinpHMeter, Multi Probe Adapter MPA 5/9, Courage + Khazaka) before and after 2 weeks of therapy. Results. Kserodian plus decreased erythema, dryness of the skin, itching, square of leasons in all the patients. Statistically significant decrease in the values of TEWL and skin surface pH (p<0,05) was observed. In patients used cream Unna a statistically significant decrease of TEWL values (p=0,0029) and skin surface pH (p=0,0018) was found; TEWL values and skin pH were significantly lower than in children treated with Kserodian plus (p=0,026 and p=0,033 respectively). Conclusion. Clinical efficacy of Kserodian plus as a compound improving skin barrier function in children with atopic dermatitis was shown.
Russian Journal of Allergy. 2013;10(4):65-68
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Tacrolimus 0,03% administration in atopic dermatitis children
Pampura A.N., Fedenko E.S.
Abstract
The article is devoted to natural course of atopic dermatitis in children and new trends in topical treatment with tacrolimus 0,03%.
Russian Journal of Allergy. 2013;10(4):69-73
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Features of sensitization to widespread allergens in residents of St. Petersburg and the Leningrad region with common allergic deseases
Aak O.V., Sobolev A.V.
Abstract
Background. To identify differences in sensitization to widespread allergens in patients with common allergic diseases: allergic rhinitis, bronchial asthma, angioedema, allergic urticaria and atopic dermatitis. Materials and methods. Determination of sIgE in serum using commercial and domestic reagent kits («AllergoI-FA-specific IgE» and biotinylated allergens of «Alcor Bio», St. Petersburg) was conducted in patients with allergic rhinitis, bronchial asthma, angioedema, allergic urticaria and atopic dermatitis. Results. There was a significant similarity between the spectrum of sensitization in patients with allergic rhinitis and asthma In atopic dermatitis patients the increasing of frequency of food and especially mold sensitization was estimated. The high degree of correlation between the moulds, plants and food allergens in atopic dermatitis was observed. Conclusion. The results obtained in the study can be interesting for physicians in allergological examination and for the researchers to identify new cross-reactive allergens.
Russian Journal of Allergy. 2013;10(4):74-80
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Congresses, Conferences
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Russian Journal of Allergy. 2013;10(4):82-82
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Samara allergology and immunology conference
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Russian Journal of Allergy. 2013;10(4):83-84
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Global burden of allergy
Ilina N.I., Fedenko E.S., Kurbacheva O.M., Latisheva T.V., Goudima G.O.
Russian Journal of Allergy. 2013;10(4):85-89
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Instructions for Authors
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Russian Journal of Allergy. 2013;10(4):92-95
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