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Vol 15, No 5 (2018)

Articles
Actual directions and medical and social problems in clinical allergology: allergens, hidden allergens, food additives, GMO
Luss L.V., Ilina N.I.
Abstract
Global problems affecting all the human kind also affect healthcare, including clinical allergology and immunology, especially in the changing climate and environment conditions. The consequence of these problems is the increase of allergic diseases and immune deficiencies prevalence and severity in the world, as well as the increase in the number and role of «hidden» and the emergence of «new» allergens, the increase in the consumption of food additives, genetically modified foods, etc. In a changing climate and environmental degradation, there is a change in the concentration and role of air pollutants, a change in the composition and properties of pollen as well as household, epidermal, infectious and insect allergens. Climate change and environmental degradation are one of the reasons for the increase of the allergic diseases onset among the elderly and seniors, and for the negative impact on the development mechanisms, course and prognosis of allergy - and immunopathology. All this requires an integrated approach to solve the interrelation problems of health, ecology, climate, etc., and the creation of a global strategy program for new therapeutic approaches and prevention of allergic diseases and immunodeficiency states.
Russian Journal of Allergy. 2018;15(5):5-16
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Exercise induced bronchoconstriction in elite athletes
Tsarev S.V., Ilina N.I., Khaitov M.R.
Abstract
The problem of exerciseinduced airway hyper responsiveness and bronchial obstruction is discussed in the review. Epidemiological data on the prevalence of bronchial obstruction in elite athletes of various sports are presented. Modern concepts of etiological and trigger factors caused by exercise induced bronchospasm are considered. Pathogenetic aspects of the formation of bronchial obstruction in athletes are presented.
Russian Journal of Allergy. 2018;15(5):17-28
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Aeropalynological risks in the Yalta climatic resort in 2011-2013
Pirogova M.E., Belyaeva S.N., Savchenko V.M.
Abstract
Relevance. Yalta traditionally is used as a climatic resort for the treatment and rehabilitation of bronchopulmonary patients since the late 19th century. Allergic features of plant pollen is well known . Therefore aeropalinological research can be helpful for prediction and correction of the patient’s treatment in the resort. Background. To identify the aeropalinological risks associated with plant pollen in the Yalta climatic resort and to investigate their dynamics to predict the periods unfavorable for climate therapy and rehabilitation of patients with bronchopulmonary diseases. Methods. The plant pollen in the air of Yalta was determined during 2011-2013 by gravimetric method using panes-traps. The pollen species and it’s amount were defined in 1 cm2. Aeropalinological risks were determined according to the recommendations of Gerard Sulmont (2005) and Meyer-Melikyan N.R. et al. (1999). Results. The largest pollen producers in Yalta are cypress and pine tree (46,7% and 20,8% of the total annual pollen amount, respectively). Other plants produce the pollen significantly lower: cedar - 5,7%, ash - 3,6%, hornbeam - 2,5%, ambrosia - almost 1% of the total annual pollen amount. The greatest aeropalinological risk in Yalta is observed in February-April, August and September, which corresponds to the periods of cypress and ragweed glowering. Summary. The obtained results can be used for drawing up the medical and ecological forecasts and informing the population (allergic sensitive persons) about unfavorable aeropalinological periods using the unified infocommunication system of the city, region and state.
Russian Journal of Allergy. 2018;15(5):29-33
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Analysis of the incidence of primary immunodeficiency disorders in the Samara region. Clinical cases
Zhestkov A.V., Kozlova O.S., Lyamin A.V., Pechkurova A.D., Zolotov M.O., Kulagina V.V.
Abstract
Research objective. This research was conducted to identify and to evaluate clinical and anamnestic features of primary immunodeficiency disorders (PID) as well as quantitive and qualitive microflora composition in PID-patients in Samara region. Methods. We analysed 29 case histories of patients with PID aged from 3 to 55 years old (20 men, 9 women). Clinical and anamnestic features of the diseases were studied. We also examined microflora of 34 loci from upper respiratory tract of 7 patients. Taking into account a small sample we used statistical analysis of variance by criterion F, the normality of the distribution was evaluated by the Shapiro-Wilk criterion (S-U), the distribution was considered normal when S-U value was <0,05. Results. Humoral immune deficiency takes the first place in the structure of PID (62,1%). In 67% the PID started with infections of bronchopulmonary system. Initial manifestations of PID appeared already in childhood (1,65±0,97 y.o.), the average age of establishing the diagnosis was 11,1±9,62 years (the difference was 9,6 years; p<0,001). The infectious syndrome took place further in all cases. The most frequent manifestations were respiratory system diseases (92%). We examined respiratory tract mucose membrane microbiota in 7 patients: all patients, except the woman with common variable immunodeficiency (CVID), had dysbiosis of respiratory tract mucose membrane characterized by clinically relevant microflora in unusual loci and decreased normobiota’s titers. Conclusion. PID are quite rare conditions. Nowadays 29 patients with established diagnosis of PID are registered in Samara region. This reflects the low prevalence of the diagnosed PID; at the same time the detection of the disease in adult age reflects the low level of diagnostics. More severe disorders were revealed in patients with late disease detection. The PID in clinical case 1 was diagnosed at the age of 16 y.o., and in clinical case 2 - only at the age of 40 y.o. The diagnostics of mycoses, virus infections or mycobacteriosis in this group of patients might be very important.
Russian Journal of Allergy. 2018;15(5):34-40
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Allergenic extracts from natural and genetically modified soybean
Gervazieva V.B., Samoylikov P.V., Berzhets V.M., Pishchulina L.A., Mazurina S.A., Dudorova A.A.
Abstract
Background. The wide spread of soybeans both natural and genetically modified (GM) in agriculture and food industry arises a question about the safety of its use, as soy is the most common food allergen among leguminous plants. Meanwhile, there are no registered domestic diagnostic allergens from soybeans in Russia. Objective. The aim of this study was to obtain allergenic extracts from natural and GM soybeans resistant to the herbicide «Roundup» and evaluate their biochemical and allergenic properties. Methods. Soybean extracts were obtained by the Evans-Kok method. The amount of protein nitrogen was determined by the Nessler method. The protein composition of the soybean was determined by the SDSPAGE. Specific activity was assessed in the reaction of NDTK. Allergenic activity was assessed in ELISA according to the sIgE levels to soy in the sera of patients with food allergy. Results. The protein fractions corresponding to known allergens weare revealed by SDS-PAGE in the samples of extracts: natural soybeans - Gly m 3, Gly m 5, and Gly m 6, while GM soybeans - Gly m Bd 30k. In addition to those proteins, in both extracts the 20 kD protein was clearly detected, which can correspond to the inhibitor of trypsin Kunitsa (Hor v 1, CMb, BDR). Allergenic soybean extracts bind sIgE and sIgG in the sera of patients with allergies. Conclusion. The obtained data confirm the high allergenic potential of extracts from natural soybeans, whereas the allergenic activity of GM soybeans extracts is reduced.
Russian Journal of Allergy. 2018;15(5):41-46
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Federal Clinical Recommendations. Urticaria. Updated, 2018
Danilicheva I.V., Ilina N.I., Luss L.V., Fedenko E.S., Shulzhenko A.E.
Abstract
The updated Federal clinical recommendations on urticaria are presented (2018).
Russian Journal of Allergy. 2018;15(5):47-62
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Reflux-associated respiratory syndrome in children: a survey of algorithms in medical practice
Bardenikova S.I., Shumeyko N.K., Zaitseva O.V., Snitko S.Y., Melnikova E.A., Kulikova E.V., Dovgun O.B.
Abstract
Purpose. Based on the clinical analysis of the course of BOS with GER, rational diagnostic algorithms are available in practical medicine. Materials and methods. The study included BOS children examined in the pulmonology department of the DGKB St. Vladimir in 2010-2017 years: patients with asthma (annually from 850 to 1000) and children with obstructive bronchitis (annually from 122 to 400). General clinical, laboratory, serological, instrumental studies were conducted. In cases of insufficient control of asthma and recurrent (or prolonged) BOS esophagogastroduodenofibroscopy and radiopaque examination of the esophagus was performed for revealing GER. Results. The mutual risks of weighting the symptoms of combined asthma with GERD in children are discussed. Attention is focused on the peculiarities of complaints, history and the status of patients with BOS in combination with comorbid diseases. Pulmonology department statistics data demonstrate the growing need for gastroenterological research. The rational algorithms for examination of BOS patients for the detection of GERD are discussed. Conclusion. Due to the high frequency of GER in patients with bronchial asthma and its influence on disease control, a comprehensive study of its symptoms is necessary. The presence of recurrent BOS, ETN comorbidity, night cough demands to exclude the role of GER in etiology of respiratory disorders.
Russian Journal of Allergy. 2018;15(5):64-75
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Cross-sectional study of allergen sensitization in pre-school children living in urban environment of the Altai region with asthma and/or rhinitis
Shakhova N.V., Kamaltynova E.M., Lobanov Y.P., Kashinskaya T.S.
Abstract
Sensitization spectrum in pre-school children with asthma and/or rhinitis remains unclear. Objective. Our aim was to estimate the allergen sensitization in preschool children living in urban environment of the Altai region with asthma and/or rhinitis. Materials and methods. A cross-sectional survey was performed in 182 children aged from 3 to 6 years suffering from asthma and/or rhinitis in 5 cities of Altai region. Asthma was diagnosed according to the Global Initiative for Asthma guidelines, allergic rhinitis was diagnosed according to the ARIA guidelines. ImmunoCAP and skin prick test were used to assess sensitization spectrum. Results. Among the 182 patients 144 (79,1%) had sensitization at least to one allergen. Sensitization to one allergen was detected in 38.5% of children, sensitization to 2 or more allergens - in 40,6%. Sensitization to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus was detected in 46,7%, to birch pollen - in 37,3%, to cat epithelium - in 27,4% of patients. Sensitization to food allergens was detected only in 10,4%. Conclusion. The study revealed a high frequency of sensitization to 2 or more allergens - in 79,1% of 3-6 years old children with asthma and/or rhinitis . Most often, preschool children with asthma and/or rhinitis are sensitized to 3 inhaled allergens - to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (46,7%), to birch pollen (37,3%) and to cat epithelium (27,4%).
Russian Journal of Allergy. 2018;15(5):76-80
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The first forum on allergen-specific immunotherapy
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Russian Journal of Allergy. 2018;15(5):81-82
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Congresses, conferences
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Russian Journal of Allergy. 2018;15(5):83-83
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