Age-related features of sensitization to chicken egg white in children with allergic diseases

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BACKGROUND: International studies have shown that egg allergy is one of the main causes of IgE-mediated food allergies in children.

THIS STUDY AIMED TO analyze the frequency and rate of sensitization to white egg of Russian children, depending on the sex and age.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Anti-egg white-specific IgE antibodies were measured in children with symptoms of food allergy, such as nausea, vomiting, stool disorder developing after eating, mucosal edema, upper respiratory tract edema, urticaria, and exacerbation of eczema (4981 patients aged 6 months to 18 years). The frequency and degree of sensitization in various age groups were analyzed.

RESULTS: In this study, 29.5% of the children had anti-egg white IgE antibodies. Low (31.6%, IgE=0.35–0.69 kU/L) and moderate (40.2%, IgE=0.70–3.5 kU/L) sensitizations were the most common. An extremely high level of anti-egg white antibodies (IgE >50.0 kU/L) was observed in 6.2% of the patients. In the first year of life, sensitization was detected in 39% of the cases. In older age groups, the frequency of positive responses decreased. compared with those in the younger groups. The dependence of sensitization frequencies on sex was found in children aged >12 years. Frequencies of egg sensitization in girls aged 12–14 and 14–18 were statistically significantly lower than those in boys of the same age. The dependence of the response severity on the patient’s age was also noted: a decrease in the frequency of highly positive responses and an increase in proportion of patients with medium or low IgE levels in the older group. The severity of the IgE response decreased by age 12 and 14 years in girls and boys, respectively.

CONCLUSION: The detection frequency of specific IgE antibodies to the extract of allergens of chicken egg white was the highest in children in the first year of life. These parameters decrease in older children; аfter the age of 12, the response severity and frequency were associated with the patient’s sex. The tendency of the number of patients with chicken egg white allergen-specific IgE antibodies and their quantitative level in adolescence to decrease may be evidence of the development of tolerance to this food product.

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About the authors

Marina A. Snovskaya

National Medical Research Center for Children’s Health

Author for correspondence.
ORCID iD: 0000-0002-5263-6743
SPIN-code: 9899-1095

MD, Cand. Sci. (Med.), Leading Research Associate

Russian Federation, Moscow

Elena L. Semikina

National Medical Research Center for Children’s Health

ORCID iD: 0000-0001-8923-4652
SPIN-code: 3647-4967

MD, Dr. Sci. (Med.)

Russian Federation, Moscow

Svetlana G. Makarova

National Medical Research Center for Children’s Health

ORCID iD: 0000-0002-3056-403X
SPIN-code: 2094-2840

MD, Dr. Sci. (Med.), Professor

Russian Federation, Moscow

Oksana A. Ereshko

National Medical Research Center for Children’s Health

ORCID iD: 0000-0002-1650-652X
SPIN-code: 3893-9946

MD, Cand. Sci. (Med.)

Russian Federation, Moscow

Dmitry S. Yasakov

National Medical Research Center for Children’s Health

ORCID iD: 0000-0003-1330-2828
SPIN-code: 4715-0974

MD, Cand. Sci. (Med.)

Russian Federation, Moscow

Albina A. Galimova

National Medical Research Center for Children’s Health

ORCID iD: 0000-0002-6701-3872
SPIN-code: 2960-6185
Russian Federation, Moscow


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Supplementary files

Supplementary Files
1. Fig. 1. Age dynamics of clinically significant level of IgE antibodies detection to white egg allergens extract.

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2. Fig. 2. Frequency of IgE-positive response to white egg allergens extract depending on the patient’s gender.

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3. Fig. 3. The severity of sensitization to white egg allergens in children of different ages: а ― girls, b ― boys.

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4. Fig. 4. Frequency of highly positive IgE-response to white egg allergens extract in children of different ages (percentage of the total number of positive responses).

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