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Vol 15, No 6 (2018)

Articles
Editorial
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Russian Journal of Allergy. 2018;15(6):5-6
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The modern view of the role of innate and adaptive immunity in bronchial asthma
Galitskaya M.A., Kurbacheva O.M.
Abstract
This article provides an overview of international data about immunological aspects of the pathophysiology of bronchial asthma (BA). The relationship between innate and adaptive immunity, as well as participation of various interleukins and cells in the development of inflammation in BA are presented. The possibility of the creation of new therapeutic molecules for the treatment of BA is substantiated.
Russian Journal of Allergy. 2018;15(6):7-17
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Cross-reactive food allergy to PR-10 homologues in birch pollen sensitized patients
Litovkina A.O., Fedenko E.S., Elisutina O.G.
Abstract
Pollen allergy (pollinosis) is one of the most common allergic diseases. Majority of pollen allergy patients (47-70%) have a cross-reactive food allergy to fruits, vegetables, nuts and seeds. Oral allergic syndrome is the most common clinical manifestation of cross-reactive food allergy. The article presents the data on cross-reactive food allergy to Pr-10 homologues in birch pollen sensitized patients.
Russian Journal of Allergy. 2018;15(6):18-25
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Current aspects of pathogenesis, diagnostics and treatment of idiopathic anaphylaxis
Esakova N.V., Pampura A.N.
Abstract
Anaphylaxis is defined as a serious generalized allergic or hypersensitivity reaction that is rapid in onset and might cause the death. In some cases, anaphylaxis occurs without a specific inducing trigger, and in this situation, after unsuccessful diagnostics, anaphylactic reaction is called idiopathic. Patients with idiopathic anaphylaxis are about 1/3 of total number of patients with lifethreatening anaphylaxis. Current data on the prevalence, pathogenesis, diagnostics and treatment of idiopathic anaphylaxis are given in the article.
Russian Journal of Allergy. 2018;15(6):26-32
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AD endotypes evaluation with molecular-genetic analysis of local immune response
Elisyutina O.G., Boldyreva M.N., Rebrova O.Y., Fedenko E.S.
Abstract
The basis for the development of atopic dermatitis (AD) is genetic predisposition, hypersensitivity to allergens, Th1/Th2 disbalance, increased degranulation of mast cells and antigen-presenting activity of Langerhans cells, as well as epidermal barrier dysfunction. Recently, genotypes, phenotypes and endotypes of AD, and biomarkers, which can be used to assess the effectiveness of therapy and to develop personalized approaches to the diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of the disease, have been actively studied. The aim of this study was to determine the endotypes of atopic dermatitis on the basis of molecular genetic study of cytokine gene expression in the skin of AD patients. Materials and methods. The study was performed as a «case-control», 90 AD patients and 30 healthy individuals without signs of atopy were included. The material for evaluation of cytokine gene expression was skin biopsy samples taken by punch biopsy. The level of gene expression was determined by real-time PCR with preliminary reverse transcription of mRNA of the corresponding genes («DNA-Technology», Moscow). The transcript levels of ILB, IL2, IL2r, IL4, IL5, IL6, IL7, IL8, IL10, IL12A, IL12B, IL15, IL17A, IL18, IL23, IL28, IL29, IFNy, TNF, TGFß, FOXP3 genes were studied. Results. Based on the molecular genetic study of the local immune response the following endotypes of AD were determined: endotype with predominance of Th1-type immune response (3% of patients); endotype with predominance of Th2-type immune response (3% of patients); mixed endotype with increased expression of IL2 (20% of patients); mixed endotype with reduced expression of IL10 (64% of patients); mixed endotype with increased expression of TGFß (9% of patients). Clinically significant biomarkers of inflammation in atopic dermatitis - decreased mRNA level of IL1ß gene expression and increased mRNA level of IL2R, IL4, IL5, IL6, IL8, IL10, IL12ß, IL23, IL29, IFNy and TGFß genes expression were determined in the skin of AD patients compared to healthy individuals. Conclusion. The use of molecular genetic method for evaluation of local immune response on the basis of cytokines gene expression measurement in the skin allows to identify the most significant biomarkers characterizing different endotypes of AD, and to determine the type of immune response in the individual patient.
Russian Journal of Allergy. 2018;15(6):33-44
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Allergen-specific immunotherapy using pollen allergens in cross-reactive food allergy: what do we know?
Ereshko O.A., Makarova S.G., Namazova-Baranova L.S.
Abstract
Cross-reactive food allergy to plant-based products can lead to a significant increase in morbidity and impairment of quality of life, therefore it is important to analyze the literature data on the effectiveness of conventional and available methods of AIT in these patients.
Russian Journal of Allergy. 2018;15(6):45-49
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Allergic manifestations in patients with sensitization to cat allergens
Bass E.A., Tuzankina I.A.
Abstract
Relevance. Cats and dogs are the most popular pets in many countries, what leads to a high and widespread prevalence of their allergens and increase of sensitization to animal allergens with tendency of changing the dominant profile of sensitization with the predominance of the major cat allergen. The purpose of this study was to assess the severity of allergic rhinitis and its combination with other forms of allergic diseases in children sensitized to cat allergens. Materials and methods. Under our supervision there were 228 children aged 3-16 years old living in the cities of the Sverdlovsk region. Evaluation of the sensitization spectrum was carried out according to the results of prick tests and the level of sIgE by immunofluorescence method. Results. All children had manifestations of persistent allergic rhinitis. In 42.1% (n=96) of cases the upper and lower respiratory tract comorbidities were detected, in 16.6% (n=38) - manifestations of atopic dermatitis. In 65.4% (n=149) of children the total level of points on the SFAR scale was <9, complete control over the BA according to the results of the ACT questionnaire was established in 60.7% (n=68) of patients, lack of control - in 7.1% (n=8). Most children showed a significant increase of total IgE and eosinophilic cationic protein levels. Findings. High frequency of allergic comorbidities was noted. The mild persistent forms of respiratory allergies prevailed. A high frequency of polyvalent sensitization was identified.
Russian Journal of Allergy. 2018;15(6):50-53
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Results of monitoring analisis of immunological parameters in employees of production sites located at the former mining and uranium ore processing territories
Luss L.V., Tsarev S.V., Astafurov V.I., Sidorovich O.I., Nikonova M.F., Nazarova E.V., Shartanova N.V., Glushkova E.F., Shvets S.M.
Abstract
Aim. To study cellular and humoral immunological parameters of the employees of production sites located at the former mining and uranium ore processing territories. Materials and methods. In this work the clinical laboratory and immunological methods of examination were used. Statistical processing of the results was performed by using nonparametric analysis methods in the StatSoft Statistica 6 software package. Results. 101 employees of Chepetskiy mechanical plant were examined at the age of 19-62. 76 (75.2%) of them contacted with industrial factor, 64 - with radiation and 12 - with chemical. 25 (24.8%) employees had no contact with industrial factor. The immunological examination of the employees in contact with industrial factor revealed laboratory signs of imbalance in the immune system with IgE-overproduction. The risk group for secondary immunodeficiency with the leading infectious syndrome was 15.8%. Conclusion. Changes of cellular and humoral parameters on average values were not revealed. Infectious syndrome - recurrent ETN viral infections (13.9%) and herpes virus infection (13.9%) prevailed in the structure of the employees of Chepetskiy mechanical plant. A statistically significant difference in the content (percentage and absolute) of CD16+ lymphocytes was found in the employees of Chepetskiy mechanical plant contacted with industrial factor. These results had no clinical significance, what can be considered as an adaptive response to the chemical factor.
Russian Journal of Allergy. 2018;15(6):54-64
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About the role of bacteria in patients with bronchial asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and ACOS
Fedoseev G.B., Trofimov V.I., Golubeva V.I., Timchik V.G., Negrutsa K.V., Razumovskaya T.S., Aleksandrin V.A., Kryakunov K.N.
Abstract
The article deals with bacterial lung microbiota in patients with bronchial asthma (BA) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), bacterial inflammation of the bronchopulmonary system which can be manifested by sensitization and allergy. Also they can be a trigger with the development of bacterial inflammation. Bacteria can colonize the lungs without severe clinical, laboratory and instrumental changes. High levels of IgG to Str. pneumoniae, Neisseria perflava, Haemophilus influenza in ACOS patients can be evidence of their etiological significance. Taking into account the etiological significance of microbiota, methods of treatment of patients with COPD and BA with the use of antibiotics, vaccines and probiotics have been developed.
Russian Journal of Allergy. 2018;15(6):65-78
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Visual analogue scale - a tool for assessing the control of allergic rhinitis
Nenasheva N.M., Terekhova E.P., Bodnya O.S., Sebekina O.V.
Abstract
Allergic rhinitis (AR) is the most common form of rhinitis and the most common allergic disease in children and adults. Numerous clinical studies and daily practice indicate a pronounced negative effect of symptoms of AR on patients’ quality of life, their usual daily activity, cognitive functions, mood and sleep. The type and severity of individual symptoms can vary from patient to patient, and therapy should be directed to the overall control of the symptoms of AR. It is important to obtain reliable and comparable information regarding the severity of AR symptoms before, during and after the treatment, which can be assessed using a simple and accessible tool - a visual analogue scale (VAS). VAS validated for patients with AR allows to define a controlled, partially controlled and uncontrolled AR. The article proposes an algorithm for the treatment of AR, depending on the severity of the symptoms, assessed using VAS.
Russian Journal of Allergy. 2018;15(6):79-88
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Fedoseeva V.N. Anniversary
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Russian Journal of Allergy. 2018;15(6):92-93
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Congresses, conferences
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Russian Journal of Allergy. 2018;15(6):94-94
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