Prevalence and risk factors of asthma-like symptoms and allergic diseases in preschool children

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Abstract

Objectives. To estimate the prevalence of current asthma-like symptoms and current allergic diseases among preschool children and to determine the risk factors. Materials and methods. Cross-sectional study included children aged 3-6 years. The study was conducted in 5 towns of Altai region. Prevalence of allergic diseases was assessed using the Russian version of the ISAAC questionnaire. Results. According to questionnaire the prevalence of current asthma-like symptoms was 11,1%, current allergic rhinoconjunctivitis - 7,5%, current atopic dermatitis -12,3%. Out of 3205 children asthma was diagnosed in 0,9%, allergic rhinoconjunctivitis - in 3%, atopic dermatitis - in 7,9%. Family history of allergic diseases increases risk of development of the current asthma-like symptoms twice (OR=2,11; 95% CI=1,66-2,68), current allergic rhinoconjunctivitis by 2,8 times (OR=2,85; 95% CI=2,16-3,75), current atopic dermatitis by 4,6 times (OR=4,62; 95% CI=3,69-5,77). The male sex increases risk of the development of current asthma-like symptoms by 2,6 times (OR=2,63; 95% CI=1,17-5,93), current allergic rhinoconjunctivitis by 1,3 times (OR=1,35; 95% CI=1,03-1,76), smoking of parents on the first year of life of the child increases risk of development of current asthma-like symptoms by 1,6 times (OR=1,61; 95% CI=1,15-2,24), breastfeeding duration less than 6 months increases the risk of development of current atopic dermatitis by 1,6 times (OR=1,62; 95% CI=1,26-2,09; p<0,05). Conclusion. The prevalence of current asthma-like symptoms and current allergic diseases considerably exceeds the prevalence of medically verified diagnosis. Family history of allergic diseases, male sex, smoking parents and the short duration of breastfeeding increase the risk of development of allergic diseases in preschool age.

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About the authors

N V Shakhova

Altai State Medical University

Email: Natalia.shakhova@mail.ru
Barnaul, Russia

E M Kamaltynova

Siberian State Medical University

Tomsk, Russia

U F Lobanov

Altai State Medical University

Barnaul, Russia

T S Ardatova

Altai State Medical University

Barnaul, Russia

K S Nikolaeva

Altai State Medical University

Barnaul, Russia

M V Surcova

Clinical children's hospital № 7

Barnaul, Russia

O V Nevskaya

Altai State Medical University

Barnaul, Russia

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