Prevalence and risk factors for food allergy in children: a review of epidemiological studies

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Abstract

BACKGROUND: Food allergy is an actual problem in pediatric practice. In recent decades, there has been an increase in the prevalence of food allergies, as well as an increase in the number of severe cases.

AIM: To assess the prevalence of food allergy and the role of hereditary and environmental factors in food allergy development in children according to epidemiological cohorts and cross-sectional studies.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic review of epidemiological cohorts and cross-sectional studies published between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2021, was conducted This review investigated the developmental factors and prevalence of food allergy.

RESULTS: This review made it possible to generalize and systematize the accumulated worldwide scientific data on food allergy. An analysis of epidemiological studies revealed a significant prevalence of food allergy, which reflected the natural course of the disease; the highest rates were found among young children, and by school age, the prevalence of symptoms and confirmed food allergy is gradually decreasing. Based on epidemiological data, the main risk factors for food allergy are hereditary predisposition and environmental factors that modify the microbial environment.

CONCLUSION: It is necessary to further study the genetic markers of food allergy, as well as the role of microbiotic factors in the implementation of hereditary predisposition to allergic diseases.

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About the authors

Valeriya D. Prokopyeva

Siberian State Medical University

Author for correspondence.
Email: valeriya.d.prokopyeva@gmail.com
ORCID iD: 0000-0002-0728-5825
SPIN-code: 1072-4300

Assistant Lecturer

Russian Federation, 2, Moscowski Trakt, Tomsk, 634050

Marina M. Fedotova

Siberian State Medical University

Email: fedotova.letter@gmail.com
ORCID iD: 0000-0001-7655-7911
SPIN-code: 1488-8189

MD, Assistant Professor

Russian Federation, 2, Moscowski Trakt, Tomsk, 634050

Uliana V. Konovalova

Siberian State Medical University

Email: uliaka007@gmail.com
ORCID iD: 0000-0003-3495-0832
SPIN-code: 2301-5750

Assistant Lecturer

Russian Federation, 2, Moscowski Trakt, Tomsk, 634050

Vyacheslav A. Dochkin

Siberian State Medical University

Email: slavadochkin@mail.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0002-2050-3444
SPIN-code: 7595-5116

MD

Russian Federation, 2, Moscowski Trakt, Tomsk, 634050

Olga S. Fedorova

Siberian State Medical University

Email: olga.sergeevna.fedorova@gmail.com
ORCID iD: 0000-0002-7130-9609
SPIN-code: 5285-4593

MD, Dr. Sci. (Med.), Professor

Russian Federation, 2, Moscowski Trakt, Tomsk, 634050

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