Background. Birch pollen is one of the main allergens in central Russia, Europe, North America, and in several other regions. Allergens contained in birch pollen often cause IgE cross-reactivity with homologous proteins both in other trees and in various foods.

Allergen immunotherapy (AIT) is currently the only allergy treating method that directly affects various links in the pathogenesis of the disease, changing the body's response to the action of the allergen. The clinical effectiveness of ASIT reaches 80–90% and is expressed by results in a decrease in clinical manifestations and the need for drugs. An allergoid, unlike an allergen, retains its immunogenicity, but significantly loses its allergenicity, which is makes it safer for use in with AIT.

Aim. Obtaining an allergoid from the pollen of silver birch (lat. Bétula péndula), by processing it with glutaraldehyde.

Materials and Methods. The purified allergen isolated from pollen by degreasing and water-salt extraction was dissolved in PBS pH 7.5 and polymerized in 0.1% glutaraldehyde solution. Stabilization was carried out with a solution of sodium borohydride.

Results. After assessing the specific activity using a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), it was seen that the allergoid significantly reduced its allergenicity compared to the original allergen.

Conclusions. In the course of the work, an allergen of the silver birch was obtained. The resulting allergen contains major and minor antigens of silver birch (Bet v 1, Bet v 2, Bet v 3, Bet v 6, Bet v 7). On its basis, an allergoid was obtained by polymerization with glutaraldehyde. The resulting allergoid has a large molecular weight, and also has a low allergenic activity, in comparison with the original allergen. Thereby, this allergoid can become the basis for obtaining new AIT preparations.

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Table 1. Analysis of the competitive binding of ANB, ADB (by changes in optical density parameters), depending on the concentration, in competition with a biotinylated allergen to birch pollen.

Pic. 1. Study of the allergen isolated from the pollen of the silver birch using electrophoresis under dissociating conditions.

Pic. 2. The results of the study by immunoblotting.

Pic. 3. The results of the study of the allergen (А) and allergoid (Б) of silver birch by gel chromatography.



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