Features of the fungal spectrum in the air environment in the Rostov region according to the results aeropalynologic monitoring 2019

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Abstract

BACKGROUND: In recent decades, there has been an epidemic growth of allergic diseases, in which fungi along with other allergens significantly play a role in their etiology. Spores of a number of micromycetes are present in the air. Aeropalynology environmental monitoring enables examination of the composition of airborne microorganisms, their dynamics, and role in the formation of allergic diseases. The Rostov region has climatic and geographical features that affect the qualitative and quantitative compositions of the fungal spectrum in the air environment.

AIM: This study aimed to investigate the composition and features of the fungal spectrum of the air environment in Rostov-on-Don, to assess the dynamics of the concentration of fungal spores during the monitoring period (March to October), and to make a calendar of plant pollination and fungal spore production for this region.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this longitudinal, observational, single-center study, aeroallergens were detected using a volumetric Burkard trap. Identification of plant pollen and fungal spores was performed by microscopy of colored slides obtained from a sticky tape covered with a special mixture.

RESULTS: Results of aeropalynological monitoring in 2019 in the air environment of Rostov-on-Don revealed the presence of pollen taxa and fungal spores, represented by the mold fungi Cladosporium herbarum and Alternaria alternata in high increasing concentrations. Their dynamics were recorded throughout the observation period (March to October). The specific weight of fungal sensitization in patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis was 11.6%.

CONCLUSIONS: This study identifies the regional features of the fungal spectrum of air allergens, and a calendar of dusting and sporulation was compiled for the city of Rostov-on-Don.

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About the authors

Ella V. Churyukina

Rostov State Medical University

Author for correspondence.
Email: echuryukina@mail.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0001-6407-6117

PhD, Docent, Head of Division for Allergic and Autoimmune diseases Rostov State Medical University

Russian Federation, 29, Nakhichevansky lane, Rostov on Don, 344022

Evgeniya V. Nazarova

National Research Center — Institute of Immunology Federal Medical-Biological Agency of Russia

Email: evallergo@yandex.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0003-0380-6205

PhD, Head of the Department of hospitalization of NRC Institute of Immunology FMBA of Russia

Russian Federation, 24, Kashirskoye sh., Moscow, 115522

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Supplementary files

Supplementary Files
Action
1. Fig. 1. Spores of mold fungi Alternaria, Cladosporium and pollen grains of ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia), common sagebrush (Artemisia vulgaris) (microscope LOMO-Mikmed-6; ×400). Personal photo of the authors.

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2. Fig. 2. Concentration of mold spores (spores/м3) in the atmospheric air during the monitoring period (March-October, 2019)

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3. July, 2019

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4. August, 2019

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5. September, 2019

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6. October, 2019 Fig. 3. Concentrations of pollen of individual taxa and fungal spores in atmospheric in Rostov-on-Don.

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7. Fig. 4. The total content of fungal spores for the observation period (March-October) 2019 in Rostov-on-Don.

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8. Fig. 5. The calendar dusting of plants* and sporulation of fungi** for Rostov-on-Don, 2019. *Birch (Betula), Poplar (Populus), Pine (Pinus), Spruce (Picea), Maple (Acer), Hazel (Corylus), Alder (Alnus), Willow (Salix), Ash (Fraxinus), Elm (Ulmus), Linden (Tilia), Oak (Quercus), Hornbeam (Carpinus), Mulberry (Morus), Cypress (Cupressaceae), Cereals (Poaceae), legumes (Fabaceae), plantain (Plantago), sorrel (Rumex), nettle (Urtica), hemp (Cannabis), haze family (Chenopodiaceae), Ambrosia (Ambrosia), wormwood (Artemisia); **Alternaria (Alternaria), Cladosporium (Cladosporium).

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