Development of the concept of exosome in assessing the interaction between the internal and external environment in allergy

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Abstract

This publication extends RAACI education in the field of allergology and immunology for allergologists, immunologists and other specialists, as well as for practitioners. It presents recent data and innovative approaches to the study of complex interactions of genetic, non-genetic and environment factors in allergies. It explains the importance of exposome-oriented approaches aimed to increase the treatment effectiveness and to decrease risks of allergy in addition to genome-oriented models of human diseases. Exposome concepts can be integrated into existing research programmes which are crucial in shaping new approaches to allergy treatment and prevention

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About the authors

Natalia G. Astafieva

Ministry of Health and Social Development of the Russian Federation State Educational Institution of Higher Professional Education Saratov State Medical University named after V.I. Razumovsky

Author for correspondence.
Email: astang@mail.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0002-7691-4584

MD, Dr. Sci. (Med.), Professor

Russian Federation, 112, Bolshaya Kazachia street, 410012

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Supplementary files

Supplementary Files
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1. Fig. 1. The main mechanisms of epigenetic modifications (adapted [2]): 3 three important processes of epigenetic regulation are presented — DNA methylation (1); modification of histone (2); gene expression at the post-transcriptional level using mRNA (3).

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2. Fig. 2. Dynamics of changes in the maximum concentration of nitrogen dioxide in summer time in Saratov and the frequency of calls ambulance services in connection with exacerbated asthma: on the Calls axis: the number of telephone calls of the brigades ambulance (solid line); along the NO2 concentracion axis. concentration of nitrogen oxide in mg/m3 (dashed line) in urban air in July (Days of July) [5].

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3. Fig. 3. Environmental (technogenic) load in the Saratov region.

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4. Fig. 4. The idea of the interaction between the exosome (non-genetic elements that the body encounters) and the quantifiable elements of the human body: arrows indicate some possible factors influencing the patient’s phenotype with allergies: family history of atopy (1); type of feeding at birth (2); ecology — air, water (3); the nature of the diet (4); obesity (5); smoking (6); physical activity (7); stress (8); professional sensitizers (9); contact with allergens (10); taking antibiotics and other medications (11). Adapted [13].

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