Aeropalynologic monitoring of air pollution in the Rostov region: the results of the 2019 season

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Abstract

BACKGROUND: There is an increase in the proportion of patients suffering from allergic diseases caused by the plant pollen. Aeropalinologic monitoring of the air environment allows us to study the composition of aeroallergens and their role in the formation of pollen allergies. Features of the formation of aerial pollen spectra are closely related to the botanical-geographical and natural-climatic conditions of the region. The Rostov region has its own specific features, which is reflected in the qualitative and quantitative composition of pollen rain.

AIM: To study the dynamics of pollination of allergenic plants in Rostov-on-Don, identify the prevailing taxa and create a calendar of pollination of plants for this region.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Aeroallergens were detected by using a volumetric Burkard trap. The identification of plant pollen and fungal spores was performed by microscopy of colored slides obtained from a sticky tape covered with a special mixture.

RESULTS: In 2019, 21 taxa were registered in the air environment of Rostov-on-don (trees, meadows, haze, cereals, weeds), fungal spores were found in the air, represented by the mold fungi Cladosporium herbarum and Alternaria alternata in high growing concentrations. An increase in the vegetation period of pollination of trees (07.03.–31.06), mares (02.05–03.10), cereals (02.04–14.09), weeds (18.07–28.10) was detected According to the dynamics of pollen concentration, three periods of its growth were registered: spring-summer, summer and summer-autumn. The presence of birch pollen grains in a clinically significant concentration (36 pollen grain (PG)/m3) in this steppe region, an increase in the peak concentration of ragweed (393 PG/m3) in comparison with the same data for 1971 (265 PG/m3) was found.

CONCLUSION: Regional features of the spectrum of air allergens were identified, and a dusting calendar was compiled for Rostov-on-Don.

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About the authors

Ella V. Churyukina

Rostov State Medical University

Author for correspondence.
Email: echuryukina@mail.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0001-6407-6117

Head of Division for Allergic and Autoimmune diseases, PhD, Docent

Russian Federation, Rostov-on-Don

Olga P. Ukhanova

Stavropol State Medical University

Email: uhanova_1976@mail.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0002-7247-0621

Professor of the Department of Clinical Immunology, MD, PhD

Russian Federation, Stavropol

Elena А. Goloshubova

Stavropol State Medical University

Email: Elena_goloshubova@mail.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0001-8410-7080

Post-graduate Student of the Department of Clinical Immunology, the allergist-immunologist, aerobiologist

Russian Federation, Stavropol

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Supplementary files

Supplementary Files
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1. Figure: 1. Change in the concentration of pollen of certain taxa and fungal spores in August and September 2019 in Rostov-on-Don

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2. Figure: 2. The ratio of the main taxa in the first wave of dusting in Rostov-on-Don, 2019 (pollen taxa are numbered and marked with different colors)

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3. Figure: 3. Ratio of the main taxa in the second wave of dusting in Rostov-on-Don, 2019

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4. Figure: 4. The ratio of the main taxa in the third wave of dusting in Rostov-on-Don, 2019

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5. Figure: 5. Total content of NZ of the main taxa (a) and fungal spores (b) for the observation period (March-October) 2019 in Rostov-on-Don

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6. Figure: 6. Calendar of plant dusting and fungal sporulation for Rostov-on-Don, 2019

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