Revisiting the safety of topical calcineurin inhibitors in patients with atopic dermatitis

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Abstract


Topical calcineurin inhibitors (TCI) have emerged from the shadow of topical corticosteroids as another first-line remedies for treating acute flares of atopic dermatitis (AD). The effectiveness of TCI in maintenance therapy is also undeniable. The wider use of TCI increases the relevance of the issue of their safety. The adherence of physicians and their patients to the treatment with TCI is constrained by a controversial FDA black box warning against these drugs based on the theoretical risk of skin tumors, especially lymphoma. This warning, formulated in 2005, has been repeatedly refuted. However, there have been studies that at least partially supported cautious use of TCI. In recent years, the results of large cohort prospective studies clarifying the issue of oncological safety of TCI have been published. The review highlights the results of various studies with optimistic, pessimistic and balanced conclusions regarding the safety of TCI, primarily their effect on tumorigenesis, in order to better inform physicians about the benefit/risk balance when using these drugs in AD patients. The data presented in this review indicate that there is no increased risk of melanoma and other forms of skin cancer in TCI users, but these data do not completely rule out the risk of skin lymphoma. However, the very low level of potential risk to an individual patient gives physicians the right to neglect this risk when choosing TCI as a treatment option for AD.


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Oleg V. Kalyuzhin

I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University

Author for correspondence.
Email: kalyuzhin@list.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0003-3628-2436

Russian Federation, Moscow

professor of Department of Clinical Immunology and Allergy, I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University (Sechenov University), MD, PhD, professor

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